Purpose: Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen (CTLA-4) blockade is being explored in numerous clinical trials as an immune-based therapy for different malignancies. Our group conducted the first preoperative clinical trial with the anti–CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab in 12 patients with localized urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.
Experimental Design: Six patients were treated with 3 mg/kg/dose of anti–CTLA-4 and six patients were treated with 10 mg/kg/dose of antibody. Primary end points of the study were safety and immune monitoring.
Results: Most drug-related adverse events consisted of grade 1/2 toxicities. All patients had measurable immunologic pharmacodynamic effects, consisting of an increased frequency of CD4+ICOShi T cells in tumor tissues and the systemic circulation. To determine if CD4+ICOShi T cells could be a correlative marker for clinical outcome after treatment with anti–CTLA-4, a cohort of metastatic melanoma patients was studied retrospectively for frequency of CD4+ICOShi T cells and survival. Data from this small cohort of patients indicated that an increased frequency of CD4+ICOShi T cells, sustained over a period of 12 weeks of therapy, correlates with increased likelihood of clinical benefit consisting of overall survival.
Conclusions: Our trial shows that anti–CTLA-4 therapy has a tolerable safety profile in the presurgical setting and that a preoperative model can be used to obtain biological data on human immune responses, which can efficiently guide the monitoring of patients treated in the metastatic disease setting. Clin Cancer Res; 16(10); 2861–71. ©2010 AACR.
This article is featured in Highlights of This Issue, p. 2697
Note: Supplementary data for this article are available at Clinical Cancer Research Online (http://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/).
- Received March 4, 2010.
- Revision received March 29, 2010.
- Accepted March 30, 2010.