Purpose: Glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78 is overexpressed in multiple myeloma, and both its surface expression and its biologic significance as key sensor of the unfolded protein response make GRP78 an ideal candidate for immunotherapeutic intervention. The monoclonal antibody PAT-SM6 targets surface GRP78 and leads to disease stabilization when used as single agent in a clinical trial. In this article, we evaluated expression of GRP78 in relapsed-refractory disease and explored PAT-SM6 therapy in combination regimens.
Experimental Design: GRP78 expression was immunohistochemically analyzed during disease progression and development of drug resistance throughout different stages of multiple myeloma. Activity of PAT-SM6 was evaluated in combination with anti–multiple myeloma agents lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone in vitro. Finally, we report on a multiple myeloma patient with relapsed-refractory disease treated with PAT-SM6 in combination with bortezomib and lenalidomide.
Results: Although sGRP78 expression was present at all stages, it increased with disease progression and was even strongly elevated in patients with drug-resistant and extramedullary disease. Pretreatment with dexamethasone as well as dual combination of PAT-SM6/lenalidomide further increased sGRP78 expression and consecutively showed synergistic anti–multiple myeloma effects with PAT-SM6 in proliferation assays. As proof of concept, a 62-year-old male with triple resistant multiple myeloma treated with PAT-SM6, bortezomib, and lenalidomide experienced partial remission of both intra- and extramedullary lesions.
Conclusions: PAT-SM6 therapy in combination regimens showed efficacy in relapsed-refractory multiple myeloma. Clin Cancer Res; 22(17); 4341–9. ©2016 AACR.
Note: Supplementary data for this article are available at Clinical Cancer Research Online (http://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/).
- Received December 23, 2015.
- Revision received March 13, 2016.
- Accepted March 16, 2016.
- ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.