Immunosuppressive functions conferred by regulatory cytokines are important for maintaining homeostasis in immune responses. IL35 has recently emerged as a novel regulator of immune responses. Once thought to be specifically expressed by T regulatory cells, induction of IL35 expression has now been detected in multiple cell types in a variety of diseases, prompting research into regulation of its expression, signaling specificity, target cell populations, and functional outputs. Recent studies have revealed that by directing de novo generation of regulatory T and B cells and inhibiting T effector responses, IL35 plays an important role in the development of autoimmune diseases and cancer. IL35 is overexpressed in a variety of cancers and may exert its function both on antitumor immune responses as well as directly on tumor cells. As such, IL35 is rapidly emerging as a promising biomarker and an attractive cancer therapy target. Clin Cancer Res; 22(20); 4973–8. ©2016 AACR.
- Received July 15, 2016.
- Revision received August 11, 2016.
- Accepted August 12, 2016.
- ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.