Monoclonal antibody (mAb) 225 against the human epidermal growth factor receptor blocks activation of receptor tyrosine kinase. This retards or arrests cell cycle progression, with accumulation of cells in G1 phase. The mechanism of growth inhibition involves increased levels of p27KIP1 and inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase-2 activity. mAb in combination with chemotherapy exhibits a synergistic antitumor activity, with successful eradication of well-established tumor xenografts that resist treatment with either mAb or drug alone. A Phase I clinical trial has established the safety of repeated administration of human:mouse chimeric mAb 225 at concentrations that maintain receptor-saturating blood levels for up to 3 months. Phase I trials exploring mAb 225 treatment in combination with doxorubicin, cisplatin, or paclitaxel are ongoing.