Purpose: Myxofibrosarcoma remains obscure in molecular determinants of clinical aggressiveness, for which we elucidated implications of SKP2 amplification. Experimental Design: Array comparative genomic hybridization was applied on samples and cell lines to search causal genes of tumor progression. SKP2 gene dosage was determined in 82 independent tumors for clinical correlates. Stable SKP2 knockdown was achieved in myxofibrosarcoma cells to assess its oncogenic attributes and candidate mediators in pro-metastatic function. Pharmacological assays were evaluated in vitro and in vivo for the therapeutic relevance of bortezomib. Results: DNA gains frequently involved 5p where 3 amplicons were differentially overrepresented in samples behaving unfavorably, encompassing mRNA-upregulated TRIO, SKP2, and AMACR genes. Detected in NMFH-1 cells and 38% of tumors, SKP2 amplification was associated with SKP2 immunoexpression and adverse prognosticators and independently predictive of worse outcomes. Nevertheless, SKP2-expressing OH931 cells and 14% of such tumors lacked gene amplification. Knockdown of SKP2 suppressed proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, migration, and invasion of sarcoma cells and downregulated motility-promoting genes, including ITGB2, ACTN1, IGF1, and ENAH. In vitro, bortezomib downregulated SKP2 expression at the mRNA level with p27kip1 accumulation, induced caspase activation, and decreased cell viability in myxofibrosarcoma cells but not in fibroblasts. In vivo, bortezomib inhibited growth of NMFH-1 xenografts, the cells of which displayed decreased SKP2 expression but increased p27kip1 and TUNEL labeling. Conclusions: As a predominant mechanism driving protein overexpression, SKP2 amplification confers tumor aggressiveness in myxofibrosarcoma. The sensitivity of myxofibrosarcoma cells to bortezomib with SKP2-repressing effect indicates the potentiality of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway as a therapeutic target.
- Received December 3, 2011.
- Revision received January 12, 2012.
- Accepted January 17, 2012.
- Copyright © 2012, American Association for Cancer Research.