Purpose: Pan-class histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are effective treatments for select lymphomas. Isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors are emerging as potentially more targeted agents. HDAC6 is a class IIb deacetylase that facilitates misfolded protein transport to the aggresome for degradation. We investigated the mechanism and therapeutic impact of the selective HDAC6 inhibitor ACY-1215 alone and in combination with bortezomib in preclinical models of lymphoma.
Experimental Design: Concentration–effect relationships were defined for ACY-1215 across 16 lymphoma cell lines and for synergy with bortezomib. Mechanism was interrogated by immunoblot and flow cytometry. An in vivo xenograft model of DLBCL was used to confirm in vitro findings. A collection of primary lymphoma samples were surveyed for markers of the unfolded protein response (UPR).
Results: Concentration–effect relationships defined maximal cytotoxicity at 48 hours with IC50 values ranging from 0.9 to 4.7 μmol/L. Strong synergy was observed in combination with bortezomib. Treatment with ACY-1215 led to inhibition of the aggresome evidenced by acetylated α-tubulin and accumulated polyubiquitinated proteins and upregulation of the UPR. All pharmacodynamic effects were enhanced with the addition of bortezomib. Findings were validated in vivo where mice treated with the combination demonstrated significant tumor growth delay and prolonged overall survival. Evaluation of a collection of primary lymphoma samples for markers of the UPR revealed increased HDAC6, GRP78, and XBP-1 expression as compared with reactive lymphoid tissue.
Conclusion: These data are the first results to demonstrate that dual targeting of protein degradation pathways represents an innovative and rational approach for the treatment of lymphoma. Clin Cancer Res; 1–13. ©2015 AACR.
Note: Supplementary data for this article are available at Clinical Cancer Research Online (http://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/).
- Received December 2, 2014.
- Revision received May 21, 2015.
- Accepted June 12, 2015.
- ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.