Purpose: Targeted therapies in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are limited by acquired resistance. Novel therapeutic targets are needed to combat resistance and, ideally, target the unique biology of RCC subtypes. Experimental Design: Tyrosine kinases provide critical oncogenic signaling and their inhibition has significantly impacted cancer care. In order to describe a landscape of tyrosine kinase activity in RCC that could inform novel therapeutic strategies, we performed a mass spectrometry-based system-wide survey of tyrosine phosphorylation in 10 RCC cell lines as well as 15 clear cell and 15 papillary RCC human tumors. To prioritize identified tyrosine kinases for further analysis, a 63 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) drug screen was performed. Results: Among the cell lines, 28 unique tyrosine phosphosites were identified across 19 kinases and phosphatases including EGFR, MET, JAK2, and FAK in nearly all samples. Multiple FAK TKIs decreased cell viability by at least 50% and inhibited RCC cell line adhesion, invasion, and proliferation. Among the tumors, 49 unique tyrosine phosphosites were identified across 44 kinases and phosphatases. FAK pY576/7 was found in all tumors and many cell lines, while DDR1 pY792/6 was preferentially enriched in the papillary RCC tumors. Both tyrosine kinases are capable of transmitting signals from the extracellular matrix and emerged as novel RCC therapeutic targets. Conclusions: Tyrosine kinase profiling informs novel therapeutic strategies in RCC and highlights the unique biology amongst kidney cancer subtypes.
- Received July 14, 2015.
- Revision received April 11, 2016.
- Accepted April 12, 2016.
- Copyright ©2016, American Association for Cancer Research.