Purpose: Epigenetic dysregulation is known to be an important contributor to myeloma pathogenesis but, unlike in other B cell malignancies, the full spectrum of somatic mutations in epigenetic modifiers has not been previously reported. We sought to address this using results from whole-exome sequencing in the context of a large prospective clinical trial of newly diagnosed patients and targeted sequencing in a cohort of previously treated patients for comparison. Experimental Design: Whole-exome sequencing analysis of 463 presenting myeloma cases entered in the UK NCRI Myeloma XI study and targeted sequencing analysis of 156 previously treated cases from the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. We correlated the presence of mutations with clinical outcome from diagnosis and compared the mutations found at diagnosis with later stages of disease. Results: In diagnostic myeloma patient samples we identify significant mutations in genes encoding the histone 1 linker protein, previously identified in other B-cell malignancies. Our data suggest an adverse prognostic impact from the presence of lesions in genes encoding DNA methylation modifiers and the histone demethylase KDM6A/UTX. The frequency of mutations in epigenetic modifiers appears to increase following treatment most notably in genes encoding histone methyltransferases and DNA methylation modifiers. Conclusions: Numerous mutations identified raise the possibility of targeted treatment strategies for patients either at diagnosis or relapse supporting the use of sequencing-based diagnostics in myeloma to help guide therapy as more epigenetic targeted agents become available.
- Received July 28, 2015.
- Revision received March 24, 2016.
- Accepted April 27, 2016.
- Copyright ©2016, American Association for Cancer Research.