Purpose: Approximately one-third of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring tumors with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI)-sensitizing mutations (EGFRm) experience disease progression during treatment due to brain metastases. Despite anecdotal reports of EGFR-TKIs providing benefit in some patients with EGFRm NSCLC brain metastases, there is a clinical need for novel EGFR-TKIs with improved efficacy against brain lesions. Experimental design: We performed preclinical assessments of brain penetration and activity of osimertinib (AZD9291), an oral, potent, irreversible EGFR-TKI selective for EGFRm and T790M resistance mutations, and other EGFR-TKIs in various animal models of EGFR-mutant NSCLC brain metastases. We also present case reports of previously treated patients with EGFRm advanced NSCLC and brain metastases who received osimertinib in the phase I/II AURA study (NCT01802632). Results: Osimertinib demonstrated greater penetration of the mouse blood-brain barrier than gefitinib, rociletinib (CO-1686), or afatinib, and at clinically relevant doses induced sustained tumor regression in an EGFRm PC9 mouse brain metastases model; rociletinib did not achieve tumor regression. Under positron emission tomography micro-dosing conditions, [11C]osimertinib showed markedly greater exposure in the cynomolgus monkey brain than [11C]rociletinib and [11C]gefitinib. Early clinical evidence of osimertinib activity in previously treated patients with EGFRm advanced NSCLC and brain metastases is also reported. Conclusions: Osimertinib may represent a clinically significant treatment option for patients with EGFRm NSCLC and brain metastases. Further investigation of osimertinib in this patient population is ongoing.
- Received February 12, 2016.
- Revision received June 8, 2016.
- Accepted July 5, 2016.
- Copyright ©2016, American Association for Cancer Research.