Purpose: In germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutation carriers, restoration of tumor BRCA1/2 function by a secondary mutation is recognized as a mechanism of resistance to platinum and PARP inhibitors, primarily in ovarian cancer. We evaluated this mechanism of resistance in newly diagnosed patients with BRCA1/2-mutant breast cancer with poor response to neoadjuvant platinum-based therapy.
Experimental Design: PrECOG 0105 was a phase II neoadjuvant study of gemcitabine, carboplatin, and iniparib in patients with stage I–IIIA triple-negative or BRCA1/2 mutation–associated breast cancer (n = 80). All patients underwent comprehensive BRCA1/2 genotyping. For mutation carriers with moderate or extensive residual disease after neoadjuvant therapy, BRCA1/2 status was resequenced in the residual surgical breast tumor tissue.
Results: Nineteen patients had a deleterious germline BRCA1/2 mutation, and four had moderate residual disease at surgery. BRCA1/2 sequencing of residual tissue was performed on three patients. These patients had BRCA1 1479delAG, 3374insGA, and W1712X mutations, respectively, with LOH at these loci in the pretreatment tumors. In the first case, a new BRCA1 mutation was detected in the residual disease. This resulted in a 14–amino acid deletion and restoration of the BRCA1 reading frame. A local relapse biopsy 4 months later revealed the identical reversion mutation, and the patient subsequently died from metastatic breast cancer.
Conclusions: We report a BRCA1 reversion mutation in a patient newly diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer that developed over 18 weeks of platinum-based neoadjuvant therapy. This was associated with poor therapy response, early relapse, and death. Clin Cancer Res; 1–6. ©2017 AACR.
Note: An earlier version of this work was presented in part at the 2015 American Society of Oncology Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL.
- Received August 29, 2016.
- Revision received December 16, 2016.
- Accepted December 23, 2016.
- ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.