Purpose: Non-invasive drug biomarkers for the early assessment of tumor response can enable adaptive therapeutic decision-making and proof-of-concept studies for investigational drugs. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is released into the circulation by tumor cell turnover and has been shown to be detectable in urine. Experimental Design: We tested the hypothesis that dynamic changes in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating (exon 19del and L858R) and resistance (T790M) mutation levels detected in urine could inform tumor response within days of therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving osimertinib, a second line third generation anti-EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Results: Eight of nine evaluable NSCLC patients had detectable T790M-mutant DNA fragments in pre-treatment baseline samples. Daily monitoring of mutations in urine indicated a pattern of intermittent spikes throughout week 1 suggesting apoptosis with an overall decrease in fragment numbers between baselines to day 7 preceding radiographic response assessed at 6-12 weeks. Conclusions: These findings suggest drug-induced tumor apoptosis within days of initial dosing. Daily sampling of ctDNA may enable early assessment of patient response and proof-of-concept studies for drug development.
- Received February 15, 2017.
- Revision received April 7, 2017.
- Accepted April 13, 2017.
- Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.