Table 1.

Examples of signaling cascades activated by ligand-activated hormone receptors that impinge on epigenetic regulators, altering gene expression to result in increased tumor susceptibility

Ligand17-β Estradiol, xenoestrogens (e.g., BPA, DES, Genistein)
Nuclear hormone receptorER, PR, AR, Ahr, PPARγ
Nongenomic signalingPI3K/AKT, PKA, MAPK, PLC/PKC, PKG, JAK/STAT, Pak1, casein kinase I-γ2, sphingosine kinase, CaMKIV, tyrosine kinase Src, p21ras, adenylyl cyclase, etc.
Writers, erasers, readersEZH2, SETDB1, SUV39H1, PR-Set7, SU(VAR)3-9, Carm1, ENX2, PHF2, PHF8, Rph1, HP1Y, HP1β
(Re)Programming of the epigenomeAltered H3K27me3, H3K9me2/3, H4K20me1, H3R17me2, H3K36me2/3
Altered gene expressionHOXA10, PDE4D4, LTF, FOS, HMGN5, CALB3, GRIA2, GDF10, MMP3
Increased susceptibility to tumorigenesisUterine and prostate cancer