Table 4.

Regressions for the association of prostate cancer and serum 25-OH D levels in EAs

Biopsy status: prostate cancera (n = 168) vs. negative (n = 107) OR (95% CI)Stage: ≥ T2b (n = 32) vs. ≤ T2a (n = 136) OR (95% CI)Gleason: ≥ 3+4 (n = 73) vs. ≤ 3+3 (n = 92) OR (95% CI)Gleason: ≥ 4+4 (n = 25) vs. < 4+4 (n = 140) OR (95% CI)NCCN risk: ≥ intermediate (n = 104) vs. low (n = 61) OR (95% CI)
Serum 25-OH D < 20 ng/mL 1.34 (0.90–2.00)Serum 25-OH D < 12 ng/mL 2.42 (1.14–5.10)bSerum 25-OH D < 12 ng/mL 1.54 (0.72–3.31)Serum 25-OH D < 12 ng/mL 3.66 (1.41–9.50)bSerum 25-OH D < 12 ng/mL X ever drinkc
Season (high UV/low UV) 1.04 (0.71–1.51)Season (high UV/low UV) 0.97 (0.53–1.76)Season (high UV/low UV) 1.43 (0.85–2.41)Season (high UV/low UV) 0.84 (0.36–1.95)Season (high UV/low UV) 0.82 (0.46–1.46)
Age 1.04 (1.01–1.07)cAge > 70 1.33 (0.58–3.05)Age > 70 1.69 (0.86–3.32)Age > 70 1.56 (0.53–4.54)Age > 70 y/o 0.86 (0.38–1.96)
Serum PSA 1.03 (1.01–1.05)cSerum PSA 1.00 (0.99–1.00)Serum PSA 1.06 (1.03–1.09)bSerum PSA 1.00 (1.00–1.00)High % positive coresd 0.66 (0.36–1.22)
Family history 2.26 (1.41–3.63)bFamily history1.01 (0.57–1.79)High Ca2+ intake 2.23 (0.88–5.64)
Former smoker 0.64 (0.38–1.08)Ever smoke 1.18 (0.65–2.16)Ever smoke 0.83 (0.49–1.39)Current smoking 1.06 (0.35–3.19)
Obesity 0.81 (0.40–1.61)Obesity 1.51 (0.60–3.79)
5-ARI use 0.29 (0.14–0.59)b5-ARI use 0.88 (0.27–2.85)5-ARI use 0.09 (0.02–0.47)b5-ARI use 0.75 (0.16–3.52)5-ARI use
1.30 (0.36–2.81)

NOTE: Bold print is used for covariates that have reached statistical significance with P < 0.05.

  • aLow risk refers to the NCCN low and very low risk strata, i.e., serum PSA < 10 ng/mL, clinical tumor stage ≤ cT2a, and biopsy Gleason score ≤ 3+3.

  • bP < 0.01.

  • cP < 0.05

  • dHigh percent positive refers to having greater than or equal to 34% of the biopsy cores that were obtained containing prostate adenocarcinoma.