Table 1.

A potential “to do” list in cancer prevention and preventive interception

PreventionInterception
1Do not smoke.-Quit smoking (often requires a multitask, structured intervention). Take low-dose aspirin or other chemoprevention measures.
2Avoid chemical carcinogens in the environment and at work place. Make your environment smoke free.-Fight for your rights: receive attention if you have been exposed to asbestos, PAH, and other carcinogens in the work place or environment.
3Avoid physical carcinogens, example: overexposure to sunlight and other sources of UV.-Do periodic screening for premalignant skin lesions.
4Avoid biologic carcinogens. Vaccines for virally induced cancer (example: HPV).-Antibiotics for bacterial-associated cancer (example: Helicobacter pylori). Do periodic screening for premalignant lesions in the uterine cervix
5Avoid overweight and obesity, eat properly-Lose weight, change dietary habits
6Avoid foods that might be potentially carcinogenic-Limit salt, red and processed meat; avoid soft drinks
7Limit alcohol. Do not overcome 1 glass per day in women and 2 glasses in men-Cut back or quit drinking
8Keep your gut flora and your microbiota “healthy”-Restore your intestinal flora with a healthy life style and diet. Near future: dietary supplements containing “healthy” microbiome components
9Avoid a sedentary lifestyle, be physically active-Get on an exercise program
10Control risk factors: inflammation, metabolic syndrome-With low level risk conditions, take some chemopreventive strategies with few side effects: aspirin, metformin, flavonoids, curcumin
11Prefer breast feeding your children rather than using formula-Monitor changes in your body (e.g., breast lumps).
12If there are familial cases of cancer, get genetic counseling and do relevant chemoprevention for the cancers at risk.-Do periodic screening for premalignant lesions for breast, colon and prostate. With high risk consider a chemoprevention trial. Near future: precision prevention.
  • Abbreviations: PAH, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; UV, ultraviolet light.