Table 2.

Genes overlapping between piggyBac mutagenesis and genes found somatically mutated in CLL patients refractory to fludarabine-based therapy

Gene (HGNC symbol)Mutation (Messina et al.)LocationStrandExpression in CLLaExpression in HG3b
ACSS3L305VUpstreamLowPresent
ANO2F614fsIntron 7+LowAbsent
ARID5BN297TUpstream, intron 1+HighPresent
BRAFL597QIntron 1+ModeratePresent
CCDC80D872EIntron 2LowAbsent
LARSI852VIntron 1Moderate to highPresent
NUDCD3H144YIntron 2+ModeratePresent
PDE7BE350KIntron 2LowAbsent
TMEM132BA911SIntron 1, intron 4+LowPresent
UBR5A2154VIntron 1HighPresent
  • NOTE: The mutation identified by Messina and colleagues is presented as an amino acid location in the protein. Location refers to the transposon insertion in relation to the targeted gene. Strand, + indicates the same direction of the piggyBac cassette and gene transcription; − indicates the opposite direction of the piggyBac cassette relative to gene transcription. Genes shown in bold were selected for functional validation.

  • Abbreviation: HGNC, HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee.

  • aBased on Genesapiens; low: <300; moderate: 300–1,000; high: > 1,000.

  • bBased on RNA sequencing data in HG3 cells. Transcripts with a normalized fragment per kilobase of transcript per million fragments mapped (FPKM) value less than 0.1 were considered “absent.”