Table 1.

Cancer surveillance recommendations in the pediatric age range

SyndromeGeneInheritance patternTumor riskPediatric surveillanceFrequency
FAPAPCAutosomal dominantColorectumFlexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopyStarting at age 10–15; annually until surgery.
ThyroidCervical palpationStarting at age 15–19; annually.
Liver (hepatoblastoma)Abdominal ultrasonography and serum AFP (see discussion)Starting early infancy; every 4–6 months until age 7.
DesmoidAnnual physical examination Abdominopelvic MRI (for individuals with positive family history of desmoids)Following colectomy or other surgery; 1–3 years, then lengthen time frame to 5–10 years.
MedulloblastomaAnnual physical examinationStarting at childhood; annually.
Attenuated FAPColorectumColonoscopyStarting at age 15–19; every 3 years until adenomas arise, then yearly.
MUTYH-associated polyposisMUTYHAutosomal recessiveColorectumColonoscopyNo childhood surveillance recommended
Starting at age 18; every 2 years.
Gastric/duodenumUpper gastroduodenal endoscopyStarting at age 25–30; every 1–5 years.
Peutz–Jeghers syndromeSTK11 (LKB1)Autosomal dominantGastric/duodenumUpper gastroduodenal endoscopyStarting at age 8, baseline; every 3 years if polyps are found. In absence, repeat at age 18.
StomachGastroduodenal endoscopyStarting at age 8; every 2–3 years.
Small bowelCapsule endoscopyStarting at age 8; every 2–3 years.
Ovary and cervixAnnual physical examinationStarting at childhood; annually.
TestesAnnual physical examinationStarting at childhood; annually.
Juvenile polyposisBMPR1A and SMAD4Autosomal dominantColorectumColonoscopyStarting at age 12–15; every year until no polyps are found, then lengthen interval to every 3 years.
StomachGastroduodenal endoscopyStarting at age 15; every 1–2 years.
Small bowelCapsule endoscopyStarting at age 15; every 1–2 years.
  • Abbreviation: AFP, alpha-fetoprotein.