Table 2

Patient characteristics and their relationship with retinoic acid receptor-β2 (RAR-β2) methylation in 124 oral leukoplakia patients

RAR-β2 methylationPa
U (n = 58)M (n = 66)
Age
 Mean ± SD55.8 ± 13.6
 Median56.3
 Range23.6–90.40.59b
Sex
 Female61 (49.2)31 (50.8)30 (49.2)
 Male63 (50.8)27 (42.9)36 (57.1)0.47
Race
 White111 (89.5)54 (48.7)57 (51.3)
 Hispanic5 (4.0)
 Asian5 (4.0)4 (30.8)9 (69.2)0.25
 Black3 (2.5)
Histologic type
 Hyperplasia82 (66.1)41 (50.0)41 (50.0)
 Dysplasiac42 (33.9)17 (40.5)25 (59.5)0.35
Site
 Tongue55 (44.7)28 (50.9)27 (49.1)
 Oral cavity46 (37.4)21 (45.7)25 (54.4)
 Other22 (17.9)8 (36.4)14 (63.6)0.52
Tobacco used
 Current44 (35.8)21 (47.7)23 (52.3)
 Former49 (39.8)22 (44.9)27 (55.1)
 Never30 (24.4)14 (46.7)16 (53.3)0.97
Alcohol consumptiond
 Current70 (56.9)33 (47.1)37 (52.9)
 Former17 (13.8)8 (47.1)9 (52.9)
 Never36 (29.3)16 (44.4)20 (55.6)0.97
  • a Fisher’s exact test unless specified otherwise.

  • b From Wilcoxon test.

  • c The dysplasia lesions were mostly mild dysplasia (80%).

  • d One patient did not have tobacco and alcohol information.