Table 2

Modified TNM staging classificationa

T0Tumor not found
T11 nodule < 2.0 cm
T21 nodule = 2.0–5.0 cm; 2 or 3 nodules, all ≦ 3.0 cm
T31 nodule > 5.0 cm; 2 or 3 nodules, at least one > 3.0 cm
T4a4 or more nodules, any size
T4bT2, T3, or T4a plus gross intrahepatic portal or hepatic vein involvement as indicated by CT, MRI, or USb
N1Regional (porta hepatis) nodes involved
M1Metastatic disease, including extrahepatic portal or hepatic vein involvement
stage IT1
stage IIT2
stage IIIT3
stage IVA1T4a
stage IVA2T4b
stage IVBany N1, any M1
  • a by American Liver Tumor Study Group (Ref. 28 ).

  • b CT, computed tomography; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; US, ultrasonography.