Table 1.

Correlation of clinical parameters with IDO expression in different cancer types

Cancer typeDetection methodsIDO correlates with:aReference
ColorectalIHC (high expression 56/143 patients)↑ Hepatic metastasis14
↓ CD3 infiltration
Serum tryptophan (66 patients)↑ Hepatic metastasis39
IHC in tumor (high expression in 9/71 patients) and dLN (high density in 21/60 patients)↓ 5-year survival rate33
Uterine cervicalIHC (100% of microinvasive or invasive cancer)Invasion by tumors29
EndometrialIHC (high expression in 37/80 patients) and Western blot (4/7)Advanced stage26
LN metastasis
↓ Global and progression-free survival
IHC (high expression in 32/65 tissues)↓ CD3, CD8, CD57 infiltration16
↓ Progression-free survival
HepatocellularRT-PCR (12/21 patients) and IHC (for IDO+ in mRNA)↑ Progression-free survival36
↑ IFN-γ; TNF-α; IL-1β
IHC (overexpression in 49/138 tissues)Metastasis25
↓ Global survival
Leukemia (AML)RT-PCR (40/76 patients) and ICC (40/76 patients)↑ CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ frequency20
BreastIHC (SLN of 47 patients)LN metastasis with Foxp3 coexpression24
MelanomaIHC (SLN of 40 patients)↓ Long-term survival31
IHC and RT-PCR (15 patients)Advanced stage28
OvarianIHC (high expression in 34/60 patients)Advanced stage15
↓ CD8 infiltration
↓ Global and disease-free survival
Microarray and IHC (expression in 17/24 serous type patients)Paclitaxel resistance34
↓ Global survival
IHC (expression in 67/122 patients)↓ Global survival35
PancreaticIHC (3%–50% expression in 17/17 tumors)Treg in metastatic LN22
Lung (non–small cell)IHC (25 patients with IDO in eosinophils)↓ Survival32
RenalQuantitative RT-PCR (55 primary tumor + 52 metastasis)↓ Tumor proliferation37
Western blot and IHC (expression in microvessels)
NasopharyngealIHC (9 patients + immortalized cell line)Advanced histologic stage27

Abbreviations: AML, acute myelogenous leukemia; dLN, draining lymph node; ICC, immunocytochemistry; IHC, immunohistochemistry; IL, interleukin; LN, lymph node; RT-PCR, reverse-transcription PCR; SLN, skin lymph node.

  • aUp arrow indicates increase, and down arrow indicates decrease.