Table 1.

Descriptive statistics of the patient population and subgroups

VariableAll patients, n (%)Metformin, n (%)Non-metformin, n (%)P
Age, y0.655
 ≤6094 (31.1)35 (29.9)59 (31.9)
 61–70139 (46.0)52 (44.4)87 (47.0)
 >7069 (22.8)30 (25.6)39 (21.1)
Sex
 Male198 (65.6)75 (64.1)123 (66.5)0.671
Race/ethnicity0.076
 White237 (78.5)96 (82.0)141 (76.2)
 Black25 (8.3)8 (6.8)17 (9.2)
 Hispanic33 (10.9)8 (6.8)25 (13.5)
 Other7 (2.3)5 (4.3)2 (1.1)
BMI, kg/m2
 ≤25114 (38.0)46 (39.3)68 (37.2)0.911
 25.1—30124 (41.3)48 (41.0)76 (41.5)
 >3062 (20.7)23 (19.7)39 (21.3)
Diabetes duration, y0.713
 0–2148 (49.0)54 (46.2)94 (50.8)
 >2—555 (18.2)24 (20.5)31 (16.8)
 >5—1039 (12.9)17 (14.5)22 (11.9)
 >1060 (19.9)22 (18.8)38 (20.5)
Antidiabetics (ever used)
 Insulin118 (39.1)29 (24.8)89 (48.1)<0.001
 Sulfonylurea109 (36.1)44 (37.6)65 (35.1)0.663
 Metformin117 (38.7)117 (100)0
 Thiazolidinedione61 (20.2)24 (20.5)37 (20.0)0.914
Tumor size,a cm3.9 ± 1.64.0 ± 1.83.9 ± 1.50.412
Tumor site
 Tail involved46 (15.2)24 (20.5)22 (11.9)0.042
Stage0.763
 Resectable67 (22.2)27 (23.1)40 (21.6)
 Unresectable124 (41.1)50 (42.7)74 (40.0)
 Metastatic111 (36.7)40 (34.2)71 (38.4)
CA-19-9, U/mL0.790
 0–4748 (16.0)19 (16.4)29 (15.8)
 >47–1,000144 (48.0)58 (50.0)86 (46.7)
 >1,000108 (34.0)39 (33.6)69 (37.5)
Performance status
 042 (14.0)18 (15.4)24 (13.0)
 1205 (68.1)80 (68.4)125 (67.9)
 242 (14.0)13 (11.1)29 (15.8)0.569
 312 (4.0)6 (5.1)6 (3.3)

NOTE: Information about the following was missing: diabetes duration in 1 patient, BMI in 2 patients, CA-19-9 in 2 patients, tumor size in 23 patients, and performance status in 1 patient.

  • aNumbers are mean ± SD.