Table 2.

Examples of general gain-framed messages for physicians to deliver to patients with cancera

Gain-framed message topicExample
If you quit smoking, your cancer care will be better in many ways.• You will reduce your risk for a second primary tumor.
• You will live longer.
• Your therapeutic radiotherapy will work better.
• You will have fewer complications from surgery.
• You will have less toxicity with chemotherapy.
• You will reduce your risk for a recurrence.
By quitting smoking, your general health will improve.• Your heart and lungs will be healthier.
• You will reduce your chances of heart problems and heart disease.
• You will be less likely to develop lung cancer and several other types of cancers.
• You will be able to breathe easier.
• You will be more likely to resist colds and flu.
• You will reduce your exposure to harmful chemicals in cigarette smoke
• You will reduce your risk of stroke.
• You will reduce your risk of sexual dysfunction.
It is never too late to quit smoking, and you will experience immediate and long-term benefits.• As soon as you quit smoking, you begin to add years to your life.
• You reduce your risk of mortality at all ages, including older than age 80.
• Within 8 hours:
 – Oxygen level in blood increases to normal
• Within 24 hours:
 – Chance of heart attack decreases
• Within 48 hours:
 – Ability to smell and taste is enhanced
• Within 2 weeks to 3 months
 – Lung function increases up to 30%
• Within 1 to 9 months
 – Cilia re-grow in lungs, increasing ability to handle mucus, clean the lungs, reduce infection
• Within 1 year
 – Excess risk of coronary heart disease is half that of a smoker
• Within 5 years
 – Lung cancer–related death rate for the average former smoker (one pack a day) decreases by almost half
 – Stroke risk is reduced to that of a nonsmoker 5 to 15 years after quitting
 – Risk of cancer of the mouth, throat, and esophagus is half that of a smoker's
• Within 10 years
 – Precancerous cells are replaced with healthy cells
 – Risk of cancer of the mouth, throat, esophagus, bladder, kidney, and pancreas decreases
You can work through the cravings.• When you quit smoking, you may feel urges at first, but they will go away over time.
• Although you may feel urges when you first quit smoking, they will lessen over time and eventually go away entirely.
• With every passing day after you quit smoking, the craving to smoke gets weaker.
• The longer you remain smoke-free, the fewer cravings you will get and the weaker these cravings will be.
• After quitting smoking, you will notice your urges to smoke getting weaker and easier to overcome.
• The longer you go without smoking, the fewer urges you will have until they eventually are gone.
You will experience several important benefits from smoking (e.g., appearance and saving money).• You will have whiter teeth and healthier gums.
• Your clothes/house/car will no longer smell like smoke.
• Food will taste better because your sense of smell and taste will improve.
• If you quit smoking, you will save money that would otherwise be spent on cigarettes (over $1,500 per year for a pack-a-day smoker).
  • aWhenever possible, these messages should be tailored to the specific variables about the patient (e.g., cancer history, demographics, and smoking history).