Table 1.

Examples of framed smoking cessation messages

Gain-framed messageLoss-framed message
Patient with lung cancer:Patient with lung cancer:
Quitting smoking will boost the effectiveness of your cancer treatment (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery), will reduce your risk of another primary tumor, and will increase how long you live.Continuing to smoke will lessen the effectiveness of your cancer treatment (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery), will increase your risk of another primary tumor, and will decrease how long you live.
Tailored framed message (tailored components in bold):Tailored framed message (tailored components in bold):
Jane, as your physician of 10 years who cares about you and your health, I want to convey to you that if you quit smoking Marlboro Gold cigarettes it will reduce your risk of developing lung cancer—a disease that I know you are concerned about because of your family history. Given your high level of nicotine dependence, I can tell you that quitting smoking can also have many immediate positive effects on your health. In addition to the positive benefits that quitting smoking can have on your own health, being smoke-free can also protect your husband Jim and children, Matt and Ava from diseases related to second-hand smoke.Jane, as your physician of 10 years who cares about you and your health, I want to convey to you that if you continue smoking Marlboro Gold cigarettes it will increase your risk of developing lung cancer—a disease that I know you are concerned about because of your family history. Given your high level of nicotine dependence, I can tell you that continuing to smoke can also have many immediate negative effects on your health. In addition to the negative consequences that continuing to smoke can have on your own health, being a smoker can also endanger your husband Jim and children, Matt and Ava from diseases related to second-hand smoke.