Table 2.

Anti-tobacco initiatives

YearPolicyImportanceFunction
1964Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and HealthFound a causal link between smoking and lung cancer in menEDUCATION
1965Cigarette Labeling and Advertising ActRequired all cigarette packs to carry health warning labelsWARNING
1967FCC Fairness DoctrineRequired broadcast TV and radio stations to offer time for public service announcements to counter cigarette advertisingEDUCATION
1968AACR issues first policy statement on smokingEncouraged educational and research programs aimed at decreasing smoking and diminishing smoking-associated riskADVOCACY
1969AACR prohibits smoking in meeting rooms at annual meetingEliminated exposure of nonsmokers to secondhand smokePROTECTION
1971Ban on cigarette advertising on TVEliminated significant advertising promoting cigarette usePROTECTION
1971Warning labels strengthenedWarning labels are strengthened because of mounting evidence of the adverse health effects of smokingPROTECTION
1975The Minnesota Clean Indoor Air ActFirst statewide law requiring separate smoking and nonsmoking areas for indoor public spacesPROTECTION
1983Bipartisan federal cigarette tax increase to $0.16/packPrice increases discourage smoking, particularly among youthPRICE INCREASE
1984AACR Board of Directors issues position paper: “Smoking and Lung Cancer: An Overview”Called for greater measures to stop smoking, including controls on advertising, improved warning labels, increased tobacco taxes, and elimination of smoking in public placesADVOCACY
1986Surgeon General's Report on Involuntary Exposure to Cigarette SmokeAlerted the public that secondhand smoke is also harmful to healthEDUCATION
1987AACR issues resolution on tobacco subsidiesCalled for the cessation of government subsidies to the tobacco industryADVOCACY
1988Smoking banned on U.S. flights under two hoursEliminated exposure of nonsmokers to secondhand smokePROTECTION
1988Surgeon General's Report on Nicotine AddictionEstablished nicotine as the addicting agent in tobaccoEDUCATION
1990Smoking banned on all U.S. flightsEliminated exposure of nonsmokers to secondhand smokePROTECTION
1990AACR modifies investment guidelinesStrengthened existing financial investment guidelines to exclude investments in tobacco-related companiesADVOCACY
1991–1993Bipartisan federal cigarette tax increase to $0.24/packPrice increases discourage smoking, particularly among youthPRICE INCREASE
1998Master Settlement AgreementProhibited targeted marketing to youth and funds counter advertising campaignsPROTECTION
2000Smoking banned on all international flights leaving U.S.Eliminated exposure of nonsmokers to secondhand smokePROTECTION
2000–2002Bipartisan federal cigarette tax increase to $0.39/packPrice increases discourage smoking, particularly among youthPRICE INCREASE
2009AACR Tobacco and Cancer Subcommittee formedCreated to foster scientific and policy initiatives to reduce the incidence of disease and mortality because of tobacco useADVOCACY
2009Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (TCA)Formed the FDA Center for Tobacco Products and gave the FDA authority to regulate tobacco products for the first time in the country's historyPROTECTION
2009–2014Implementation of Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control ActUnder TCA, FDA banned fruit and candy flavored cigarettes, restricted marketing to youth, improved warning labels, implemented tobacco product review, and enforced compliance with the law among other measuresPROTECTION WARNING
2009AACR provides input on FDA regulation of tobacco productsEncouraged development of reduced harm products, tobacco tracking and surveillance measures, elimination of menthol, stronger warning labels, and other measuresADVOCACY
2009Bipartisan federal cigarette tax increase to $1.01/packPrice increases discourage smoking, particularly among youthPRICE INCREASE
2010The Affordable Care ActAuthorized funding for smoking prevention efforts and expands access to cessation treatmentPROTECTION
2010AACR Issues “Tobacco and Cancer” policy statementAACR's most comprehensive statement on tobacco policy recommended investment in tobacco regulatory research and the implementation of evidence-based tobacco control strategiesADVOCACY
2012CDC launches Tips campaignFirst federally funded national tobacco education campaign—led 100,000 smokers to quit and 1.6 million to attempt to quitEDUCATION
2013AACR Issues “Assessing Tobacco Use by Cancer Patients and Facilitating Cessation” policy statementCalled for assessment and documentation of tobacco use and the provision of evidence-based cessation treatment in all clinical cancer settingsADVOCACY
2013AACR provides input on FDA regulation of mentholUrged FDA to ban the inclusion of menthol in all combustible tobacco products and to explore public health impact of banning other mentholated tobacco productsADVOCACY
2014FDA public education campaignFDA's first national public education campaign targeting at-risk youth ages 12 to 17 years who are open to smoking or already experimentingEDUCATION

NOTE: Over the past 50 years, numerous federal policies and initiatives have been implemented to reduce smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke. The AACR has long championed such efforts and continues to advocate for evidence-based tobacco control. This table lists major federal and AACR (shaded) milestones. Adapted from American Association for Cancer Research. AACR Cancer Progress Report 2013. Clin Cancer Res 2013;19(Supplement 1):S1-S88.