Table 1.

Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with prostate cancer and negative biopsies

Prostate cancer cases (N = 383)Negative biopsies (N = 284)
Continuous variables, median (SD)Pa
 Age, y62.0 (6.9)61.0 (7.58)0.03
 BMI, kg/m227.7 (5.0)27.0 (4.8)0.49
 Serum PSAb6.4 (654.0)5.6 (12.0)0.22
 25-OH D serum level, ng/mLc21.0 (10.0)22.0 (11.0)0.09
 Vitamin D intake (IU)270.5 (3,005.7)232.7 (3,263.3)0.97
 Calcium intake (mg)551.5 (2,663.1)619.5 (506.2)0.35
 Measured sun exposure6.6 (8.0)7.0 (7.2)0.21
 Education years after high school1.61.61.00
 Prostate volume (cm3)42.956.5<0.001
Categorical variables (%)Pd
 First degree prostate cancer family history25.814.90.001
 Abnormal DRE33.929.90.27
 Race/ethnicity
  African American (n = 273)43.937.00.08
  European American (n = 275)41.840.50.74
  Other (n = 119)14.422.50.01
 High school completed87.683.00.09
 25-OH D < 30 ng/mL78.175.20.43
 25-OH D < 20 ng/mL43.737.80.17
 Vitamin D supplement use13.112.70.89
 Married58.162.90.21
 Obesity (BMI ≥ 30)28.627.30.71
 Tobacco use56.654.20.54

NOTE: P values in bold print have reached statistical significance (P < 0.05).

  • aUnpaired, two-sample t test.

  • bPSA = serum PSA level (5-ARI–adjusted PSA value was calculated by doubling prebiopsy PSA value).

  • c25-OH D = serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D level drawn on date of enrollment.

  • dχ2 analysis.