Table 1.

Characteristics of prostate cancer patients in the Physicians' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohorts - mean (SD) or median (Q1, Q3)a

PHSHPFS
Total number150254
With normal tissue, N (%)82 (55)120 (47)
Years of diagnosis1982–20051986–2004
Age at diagnosis, years (SD)66 (6.5)65 (6.4)
Lethal cases, N (%)30 (20)83 (33)
Gleason score, N (%)
 2–633 (22)24 (9)
 7 (3 + 4)48 (32)91 (36)
 7 (4 + 3)28 (19)74 (29)
 8–1041 (27)65 (26)
Tumor stage, N (%)b
 T1/T2, N0/Nx89 (59)150 (59)
 T3, N0/Nx49 (33)83 (33)
 T4, N1, M112 (8)21 (8)
PSA at diagnosis, N (%)
 0–3.9 ng/mL15 (12)18 (8)
 4–9.9 ng/mL79 (61)119 (56)
 10+ ng/mL35 (27)75 (35)
Cell proliferation-Ki-67 staining
 Percentage of positive nuclei0.13 (0–0.46)0.23 (0.03–1.09)
Apoptosis- TUNEL assay
 Percentage of stained area > 0.545 (45)65 (42)
Angiogenesis- CD34 staining
 Microvessel densityc68.8 (56.6–96.8)
 Vessel area, μm2423.0 (323.1–549.9)
 Diameter of blood vessels, μm23.4 (20.8–26.4)
Perineural invasion73 (55)
  • a21 PHS and 42 HPFS were missing PSA levels at diagnosis; 29 PHS and 61 HPFS were missing Ki-67; 50 PHS and 99 HPFS were missing apoptosis; 80 HPFS were missing angiogenesis markers; 122 HPFS were missing perineural invasion assessment. N, number; SD, standard deviation; Q1, first quartile; Q3 third quartile; PSA, prostate-specific antigen; TUNEL, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling.

  • bIn the PHS, 18 men were missing pathologic stage but had information on clinical stage, so we used this information as an approximation for pathologic stage: 12 were cT1 or cT2, 1 was cT3, and 5 were cT4 or cN1 or cM1. In this HPFS, 17 men were missing this information, and we used their clinical stage: 9 were cT1 or cT2, 1 was cT3, 7 were cT4 or cN1 or cM1.

  • cMicrovessel density is the number of vessels per high-powered field.