Table 2.

Pathway tests for lethal outcome (P values) - likelihood ratio tests comparing null and alternative models in logistic regression with lethal outcome

LethalityNAdrenergic (11 genes)Glucocorticoid (12 genes)Dopaminergic (6 genes)Serotoninergic (17 genes)Muscarinic (5 genes)
Tumor tissue4040.0010<0.00010.0530.00190.0045
Normal tissue2020.310.290.580.370.70
Controlling for Gleason4040.0580.00120.390.0130.093
Controlling for Gleason and stage4040.0430.00060.310.00620.25
Among Gleason 5–657No deaths
Among Gleason 72410.0630.0980.510.0170.30
Among Gleason 8, 9, or 101060.390.00020.160.0620.078
Among low stagea2390.071<0.00010.120.130.28
Among high stageb1650.0340.00040.310.0880.084
GSEA testc4040.001 (NL)0.31 (L)0.47 (NL)0.58 (L)0.22 (NL)

NOTE: All null models include age and indicator of cohort membership (PHS vs. HPFS). Null models include Gleason and stage when indicated that these are controlled for. For the GSEA test, no control covariates are used.

  • aLow stage defined as T1/T2, N0/Nx.

  • bHigh stage defined as T3/T4, N1, M1.

  • cGSEA provides an indication of whether the pathway is upregulated in either the lethal (L) or nonlethal (NL) phenotype so the adrenergic pathway being upregulated in nonlethal suggests that the preponderance of genes in that pathway is positively associated with nonlethality (i.e., higher expression of the genes is associated with a protective effect).