Table 1.

Examples of some clinical trials involving neoantigen vaccines

Preclinical mouse models
AuthorNeoantigen discoveryVaccine typeCoadministration of immunotherapyEfficacyReference
Gubin et al., 2014Whole-exome sequencing + NetMHC ANNHPLC-purified 8- to 10-mer peptidesAnti–CTLA-4, anti–PD-1Progressive tumor rejection48
Kreiter et al., 2015Whole-exome sequencing + IEDB consensus methodPoly-neo-epitopic coding RNANoNo significant tumor growth49
Examples of ongoing clinical trials
NCT numberPhaseRecruitmentConditionsInterventions besides neoantigen vaccine therapyNumber of neoantigens
NCT02287428Phase IRecruitingGlioblastomaRadiotherapy>10
NCT01970358Phase IRecruitingMelanomaPoly-ICLC>10
NCT02129075Phase IIRecruitingMelanomaNY-ESO-1 fusion protein CDX-140, recombinant Flt3 ligandNA

Abbreviations: HPLC, high-performance liquid chromatography; poly-ICLC, carboxymethylcellulose and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid.