Table 1.

Survival analysis

HR (95% CI)P
Univariate analysis (n = 90)
 Operation performed (PD)
  DP (n = 14)0.70 (0.44–1.73)0.701
 T stage (T1–2)
  T3–4 (n = 82)2.08 (0.76–5.71)0.157
 N stage (N0)
  N1 (n = 63)1.38 (0.82–2.32)0.233
 Positive lymph node ratio2.99 (0.91–9.81)0.071
 Poor tumor differentiation (n = 46)2.05 (1.26–3.36)0.004a
 Smoking status (never smokers)
  Former smokers (n = 38)1.12 (0.64–1.94)0.694
  Current smokers (n = 19)1.78 (0.96–3.32)0.070
Multivariate analysis (n = 90)
 T stage (T1–2)
  T3–4 (n = 82)1.61 (0.56–4.61)0.376
 Positive lymph node ratio2.99 (0.87–10.2)0.081
 Poor differentiation (n = 46)2.03 (1.21–3.40)0.007a
 Smoking status (never smokers)
  Former smokers (n = 38)1.41 (0.80–2.50)0.239
  Current smokers (n = 19)1.93 (1.03–3.63)0.040a

NOTE: Continued smoking is associated with reduced survival in patients with resected pancreatic cancer. Patients with a history of resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma and data regarding dose of tobacco exposure were followed postoperatively. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze the effect of prognostic clinicopathologic variables as well as smoking status on overall survival. Positive lymph node ratio was defined as the number of lymph nodes positive for malignancy divided by the total number of lymph nodes examined. T stage was dichotomized due to a small sample size of T1–2 patients. Significance was considered for P < 0.05a.

Abbreviation: CI, confidence interval.