Table 1.

Baseline patient characteristics (N = 90)

VariableN (%)
Age (years)
 Median (IQR)63 (55–68)
Male sex59 (66)
Tumor histology
 Clear cell74 (82)
 Papillary7 (8)
 Chromophobe2 (2)
 Other7 (8)
Site of metastases
 Lung28 (31)
 Liver7 (8)
 Bone10 (11)
 Brain1 (1)
 Other14 (16)
 Unknown30 (33)
Prior nephrectomy70 (78)
Prior systemic RCC therapy
 None78 (87)
 IL27 (8)
 Other targeted agent5 (6)
Sunitinib starting dose
 50 mg55 (61)
 37.5 mg4 (4)
 25 mg6 (7)
 Other (escalating dose)25 (28)
Baseline LVEF (%)
 Median (IQR)49.8 (44.6–54.1)
Baseline cardiac troponin I (pg/mL)
 Median (IQR)1.7 (1.0–3.6)
Baseline BNP (pg/mL)
 Median (IQR)32.8 (16.7–65.4)
Baseline SBP (mmHg)
 Median (IQR)135 (123–147)
Baseline pulse pressure (mmHg)
 Median (IQR)58 (47–70)
Baseline dyspnea severitya0 (0–2)
Baseline MDASI-HF Scorea0.6 (0.2–1.5)
Cardiovascular co-morbidities/risk factors
 Hypertension49 (54)
 Coronary disease8 (9)
 Heart failure4 (4)
 BMI (median, IQR)27.0 (23.7–32.9)
 Hyperlipidemia47 (52)
 Diabetes mellitus22 (24)
 Tobacco use51 (57)
Cardiac medication use
 Aspirin23 (26)
 ACEi or ARB24 (27)
 Beta blocker20 (22)
 Calcium channel blocker19 (21)
 Statin28 (31)
  • Abbreviations: ACEi, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; SBP, systolic blood pressure; Statin, HMG CoA reductase inhibitor.

  • aSymptoms assessed by the MDASI-HF and scored on a scale of 0–10. Heart Failure Symptom Score is derived from the average response for 8 heart failure symptoms, including severity of ankle edema, abdominal bloating, sudden weight gain, lack of energy, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, nocturnal cough, and palpitations.