Table 1.

Patient characteristics including categorization according to perioperative analgesic management

AgeMedian 65 years (range, 48–88)
GenderFemale: n = 25 (42%)
Lower limb joint replacementHip surgery: n = 19 (32%)
Knee surgery: n = 41 (68%)
Neuraxial analgesian = 29 (48%)
Regional analgesia without neuraxialn = 16 (27%)
Neither neuraxial nor regionaln = 15 (25%)
  • NOTE: Neuraxial analgesia includes all recipients of intrathecal or epidural injection. Regional analgesia includes single-shot and catheter infusion of local anesthetic.