Table 1.

Immune characterization of pancreatic cancer

Wartenberg subsetSelected characteristicPotentially analogous biologyReferenceOpen question
Immune escapeLow T-cell infiltrateT-cell exclusionFeig et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2013 (6)Are mediators of T-cell exclusion (e.g., CXCL12) present?
Immune richRich T-cell infiltrateCytolytic phenotypeHamid et al., J Transl Med, 2011 (7)Are cytolytic genes (e.g., granzyme B) expressed?
Immune exhaustedPD-L1 upregulation, or microsatellite instabilityT-cell exhaustionWherry et al., Immunity, 2007 (8)Are markers of T-cell exhaustion (PD-1, EOMES) present?