Table 1.

Composition of the sample sets

Training/validationTest
SiteUPMCAllUPMCMDACCMayo
Total samples, N14750197 (147 + 50)147864120
Cancer, N7225977130410
 Average age, y (SD)a65.3 (10.6)a72.8 (8.6)a67.3 (10.6)66.3 (9.0)68.7 (8.6)64.5 (9.0)
 Percent male55.6%40.0%51.6%52.150.053.7
Control, N75251007656020
 Average age, y (SD)a57.8 (15.6)a61.1 (15.4)a58.7 (15.5)65.0 (10.6)65.1 (9.2)64 (13.8)
 Percent male45.3%48.0%46.0%44.137.561.9
Cancer stages
 Stage I, N (%)2 (2.8)1 (4.0)3 (3.1)17 (23.9)2 (6.7)15 (36.6)0
 Stage II, N (%)43 (59.7)15 (60.0)58 (59.8)40 (56.3)28 (93.3)12 (29.3)0
 Stage III, N (%)14 (19.4)6 (24.0)20 (20.6)5 (7.0)05 (12.2)0
 Stage IV, N (%)13 (18.1)3 (12.0)16 (16.5)9 (12.7)09 (22.0)0
Control types
 Chronic pancreatitis, N (%)33 (44.0)13 (52.0)46 (46.0)15 (19.7)15 (26.8)00
 Benign biliary stricture, N (%)14 (18.7)9 (36.0)23 (23.0)8 (10.5)8 (14.3)00
 Abnormal imaging, N (%)24 (32.0)3 (12.0)27 (27.0)0000
 Chronic diabetic, N (%)00024 (31.6)4 (7.1)020 (100.0)
 Healthy control, N (%)00020 (26.3)20 (35.7)00
 Pancreatic cyst, N (%)4 (5.3)04 (4.0)9 (11.8)9 (16.1)00
  • aIndicates a significant difference (P < 0.001, Wilcoxon rank-sum test) between cases and controls. Cells with an em-dash have no value because subjects were not included in that category.