Table 1.

Clinical characteristics and GDF-15 results for the endometrial cancer groups

Primary investigation cohort, endometrial cancer Oslo n = 44 (%; min–max)Secondary validation cohort, endometrial cancer Bergen n = 466 (%; min–max)aPremenopausal healthy n = 20 (%; min–max)aPostmenopausal healthy n = 20 (%; min–max)aBenign ovarian tumor n = 144 (%; min–max)aBOT n = 43 (%; min–max)aOvarian carcinoma n = 125 (%; min–max)
Age, y66 (48–86)65 (28–93)32 (24–44)57 (48–72)54 (22–92)55 (22–90)65 (29–87)
Parity1 (0–3)2 (0–11)2 (0–7)1 (0–4)2 (0–5)
BMI, kg/m226.0 (18.0–41.5)27.2 (15.2–73.0)c21.1 (18.3–31.3)24.2 (16.5–44.8)25.1 (14.9–35.8)23.5 (15.6–32.9)
Menopausal status
 Premenopausal2 (5)22 (5)20 (100)49 (34)15 (35)9/125
 Perimenopausal3 (7)36 (8)13 (9)1 (2)8/125
 Postmenopausal39 (89)408 (88)20 (100)82 (57)27 (63)108/125
FIGO stage (1988)
 I36 (82)330 (71)38 (88)25/125
 II1 (2)56 (12)3 (7)11/125
 III5 (11)58 (12)2 (5)71/125
 IV2 (5)22 (5)0 (0)18/125
GDF-15, ng/L9811,1065906845917181,242
EDTA plasma(850–1,076)(1,047–1,181)(473–640)(580–776)(530–675)(629–976)(1,063–1,453)
P < 0.001bP < 0.001bP = 0.06P = 0.3P = 0.4P < 0.001b
IQR: 723–1,384IQR: 776–1,710IQR: 461–654IQR: 561–804IQR: 389–871IQR: 480–1,123IQR: 782–2,149

NOTE: The clinical data are presented as medians and range (minimum and maximum values) or numbers (and percentages) of patients in each group (for menopausal status and FIGO stage); The plasma GDF-15 results are presented as medians (and 95% CI for the medians) as well as interquartile ranges (IQR); P value was derived with the Mann–Whitney U test between GDF-15 median of the current study group and the postmenopausal group.

  • aResults from the other patient groups used for comparison, have been presented previously (9).

  • bP < 0.05.

  • cBMI (body mass index) data available from 377 of 466 women.