Table 1

Plasma levels of d-dimer, lpa (a), homocysteine, VEGF, tPA, and PAI-1 in healthy controls, in pathological controls (patients with multiple sclerosis), and in patients with glioma (AA/GBM)

In columns are indicated also P of each comparison with healthy controls.

Healthy controlsMultiple sclerosisAA/GBM
Mean ± SD(n)Mean ± SD(n)PMean ± SD(n)P
d-dimer ng/ml29.7 ± 6.52(74)73.22 ± 60.94(11)0.384109.25 ± 248.14(72)0.012
lp (a) mg/dL23.69 ± 25.3(92)20.70 ± 26.94(45)0.33638.63 ± 37.78(79)0.002
Homocysteine μmol/liter10.21 ± 3.82(160)9.90 ± 2.9(27)0.97916.53 ± 15.6(50)<0.0001
VEGF pg/ml60.95 ± 70.89(29)n.a.n.a.n.a.103.43 ± 75.5(31)0.018
tPA ng/ml4.15 ± 2.72(133)4.91 ± 3.81(58)0.4256.83 ± 3.4(106)<0.0001
PAI-1 ng/ml14.08 ± 14.98(43)14.37 ± 11.78(40)0.13424.31 ± 15.94(83)<0.0001
  • a lp, lipoprotein; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; tPA, tissue-type plasminogen activator; PAI-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; AA/GBM, anaplastic astrocytoma/glioblastoma multiforme.