Table 3

Association of clinical, pathological, or immunohistochemical parameters with KLF4 staining patterns in breast tumors

ParameterSmall tumors only (T ≤ 2.0 cm)Large tumors only (T > 2.0 cm)
KLF4 Type 1 (n = 15)KLF4 Type 2–4 (n = 49)PKLF4 Type 1 (n = 17)KLF4 Type 2–4 (n = 65)P
Stage of disease at diagnosis
 Stage I7/15 (47%)31/49 (63%)N/AN/AN/A
 Stage IIA6/15 (40%)16/49 (33%)0.1717/17 (41%)30/65 (46%)0.714
 Stage >IIA2/15 (13%)2/49 (4%)10/17 (59%)35/65 (54%)
Histological grade
 High grade9/15 (60%)14/49 (29%) 0.026 13/17 (76%)40/65 (62%)0.252
Marker expression
 Ki67 high9/15 (60%)10/31 (32%) 0.076 14/16 (88%)27/45 (60%) 0.044
 BCL2 high6/15 (40%)21/31 (68%) 0.073 4/16 (25%)21/45 (47%)0.133
 ERBB2 high5/15 (33%)17/31 (55%)0.1718/16 (50%)22/45 (49%)0.939
 p53 positive4/14 (29%)3/30 (10%)0.1843/16 (19%)15/50 (30%)0.524
 Estrogen receptor positive11/15 (73%)30/40 (75%)1.006/17 (35%)29/62 (47%)0.428
 Progesterone receptor positive9/15 (60%)22/41 (54%)0.6734/17 (24%)21/61 (34%)0.400
 P27KIP1 high6/15 (40%)18/31 (58%)0.2508/16 (50%)19/45 (42%)0.591
  • aP refer to the behavior of the parameter in tumors with predominately nuclear expression of KLF4 (type 1; Fig. 1B<$REFLINK> ) versus tumors with other expression patterns (type 2–4). Values < 0.100, representing trends or significant differences, are shown in bold. For small and large tumors combined, significant differences were observed for histological grade (P = 0.032), Ki67 (P = 0.016), and BCL2 (P = 0.032).