Table 2.

Effect of flaxseed on urinary lignan excretion and breast tumor biomarkers

Placebo
Flaxseed
PrePostPrePost
Urinary lignans (μmol/L/d)
    Median (25-75%)2.8 (2.3-3.3)0.9 (0.2-2.3)1.0 (0.9-10.0)58.7 (9.0-128.5)*
    (Mean ± SE)(2.8 ± 0.3)(1.2 ± 0.8)(5.1 ± 2.5)(71.5 ± 28.4)
Ki-67 index (%)
    Median (25-75%)15.1 (9.1-21.0)12.0 (9.5-16.2)15.2 (12.1-23.8)10.0 (6.9-17.4)*
    (Mean ± SE)(15.8 ± 2.5)(13.7 ± 2.6)(18.1 ± 2.0)(12.6 ± 1.6)
Apoptosis index (%)
    Median (25-75%)0.87 (0.75-1.1)0.94 (0.77-1.26)0.88 (0.6-1.07)1.15 (0.89-1.72)*
    (Mean ± SE)(1.04 ± 0.15)(1.08 ± 0.15)(0.89 ± 0.09)(1.44 ± 0.24)
C-erbB2 score
    Median (25-75%)0.2 (0.09-1.17)0.31 (0.06-0.69)0.31 (0.12-0.84)0.09 (0.04-0.6)*
    (Mean ± SE)(0.58 ± 0.20)(0.53 ± 0.18)(0.47 ± 0.09)(0.34 ± 0.10)
ER score
    Median (25-75%)1.01 (0.13-1.27)0.70 (0.17-1.06)0.78 (0.48-1.0)0.81 (0.53-0.98)
    (Mean ± SE)(0.72 ± 0.17)(0.65 ± 0.13)(0.75 ± 0.10)(0.79 ± 0.12)
PR score
    Median (25-75%)0.1 (0.02-0.26)0.07 (0.01-0.40)0.11 (0.01-0.28)0.14 (0.09-0.33)
    (Mean ± SE)(0.19 ± 0.07)(0.17 ± 0.06)(0.2 ± 0.05)(0.21 ± 0.04)
  • Abbreviations: Pre, pretreatment; Post, posttreatment; ER, estrogen receptor; PR, progesterone receptor.

  • * P < 0.01 posttreatment versus pretreatment by Wilcoxon signed rank test (details in Fig. 2).