Table 3.

Univariate and multivariate regression analysis of clinical and molecular variables predicting cancer-specific survival in 90 patients with muscle-invasive TCC treated with radical radiotherapy

CategoriesVariable (n)Univariate model
Multivariate model one
Multivariate model two
PHazard ratio (95% confidence interval)PHazard ratio (95% confidence interval)PHazard ratio (95% confidence interval)
ClinicalAge (y)
    <75 (45)1.02 (0.52-2.00)
    ≥75 (45)0.94
Tumor stage
    T2 (46)1.51 (0.76-2.99)
    T3/T4 (44)0.24
Tumor grade
    2 (20)1.21 (0.53-2.77)
    3 (70)0.66
Hydronephrosis
    Absent (70)4.10 (1.94-8.65)0.062.31 (0.97-5.50)0.042.36 (1.05-5.30)
    Present (14)0.0001
    NA (6)
Dose (Gy)
    50 (16)
    52 (25)0.860.92 (0.36-2.37)
    55 (49)0.290.62 (0.25-1.51)
Volume (mL)
    <800 (45)1.47 (0.74-2.92)
    ≥800 (44)0.27
    NA (1)
Salvage cystectomy
    Yes (10)1.62 (0.49-5.30)
    No (80)0.43
Tumor morphologiesTumor differentiation
    Pure TCC (24)
    Sq elements (62)0.831.09 (0.48-2.44)
    Other diff (4)0.122.87 (0.76-10.87)
Tumor necrosis
    Absent (43)2.28 (1.13-4.62)0.091.96 (0.90-4.31)0.111.85 (0.87-3.93)
    Present (43)0.02
    ND (4)
CIS
    Absent (31)0.96 (0.44-2.12)
    Present (26)0.93
    ND (33)
Host response
    Absent (19)0.45 (0.22-0.93)0.391.32 (0.70-2.48)0.080.52 (0.25-1.09)
    Present (70)0.03
    ND (1)
Vascular invasion
    Absent (40)1.28 (0.64-2.57)
    Present (47)0.48
    ND (3)
Molecular markersAPE1
    Low (17)0.36 (0.17-0.74)0.060.47 (0.21-1.03)
    High (73)0.004
XRCC1
    Low (40)0.0020.37 (0.18-0.77)0.0540.45 (0.20-1.02)
    High (50)
Combined APE1 and XRCC1 model
    All other (45)0.00030.27 (0.13-0.58)0.0050.32 (0.15-0.72)
    High/High (45)
  • Abbreviations: NA, not assessable; ND, not determined (due to lack of appropriate tumor tissue in paraffin sections); Sq elements, squamous elements; other diff, other differentiation (see text for details); CIS, carcinoma in situ.