Table 1

Methylation frequency of normal duodenum, duodenum juice, and peripheral blood cells in 24 genes with reference to the previous report on pancreatic carcinoma

GenePercentage of methylation (no. of cases)
Statistical difference* between ND (PC) and ND (CP)Percentage of methylation in PC tissue referenceRef.
ND (PC)ND (CP)DJPBC
Tumor suppressor genes
    STK111.1 (1/91)0 (0/37)0 (0/15)0 (0/27)No0 (0/18)(33)
    VHL1.2 (1/86)0 (0/32)0 (0/15)0 (0/20)No
    hMLH120.2 (17/84)25.0 (9/36)6.7 (1/15)8.7 (2/23)No4 (2/45)(28)
    E-cad26.7 (24/90)3.1 (1/32)0 (0/15)10.0 (2/20)Yes7 (3/45)(28)
    p1644.7 (38/85)6.1 (2/33)6.7 (1/15)10.0 (2/20)Yes18 (8/45)(28)
Cancer methylated genes
    Cyclin G3.6 (3/84)0 (0/36)0 (0/15)8 (2/25)No3 (2/75)(11)
    HLTF6.0 (5/83)0 (0/31)0 (0/15)0 (0/24)No
    SOCS110.8 (11/102)2.6 (1/39)0 (0/15)0 (0/20)No22 (13/60)(18)
    Cyclin D211.3 (11/97)5.6 (2/36)26.7 (4/15)5.7 (2/35)No65 (71/109)(12)
    ST1422.2 (18/81)7.5 (3/40)0 (0/15)10.0 (2/20)No10 (4/42)(21)
    MGMT29.8 (25/84)32.4 (11/34)13.3 (2/15)14.3 (3/21)No0 (0/45)(28)
    CDH331.8 (27/85)30.0 (12/40)0 (0/15)10.0 (2/20)No19 (8/42)(21)
    FOXE147.1 (41/87)3.3 (1/33)6.7 (1/15)9.5 (2/21)Yes69 (29/42)(21)
    LHX147.8 (44/92)5.9 (2/34)26.7 (4/15)14.3 (3/21)Yes76 (32/42)(21)
    DAPK51.4 (57/111)45.5 (15/33)33.3 (5/15)35.0 (7/20)No2 (2/45)(28)
    HPP158.2 (53/91)25.0 (9/36)26.7 (4/15)6.9 (2/29)No
    CLDN568.5 (63/92)8.1 (3/37)53.3 (8/15)3.7 (1/27)Yes93 (39/42)(21)
    UCHL181.5 (66/81)23.7 (9/38)73.3 (11/15)40.9 (9/22)Yes100 (42/42)(21)
    TJP288.5 (85/96)91.8 (34/37)93.3 (14/15)5.0 (1/20)No64 (27/42)(21)
    SRBC88.6 (78/88)84.2 (32/38)100.0 (15/15)95.0 (19/20)No
    PIG1191.7 (100/109)75.8 (25/33)93.3 (14/15)87.5 (21/24)No
    ppENK91.8 (89/97)51.4 (19/37)86.7 (13/15)43.5 (10/23)Yes93 (70/75)(11)
    NPTX292.6 (75/81)37.5 (15/40)80.0 (12/15)9.5 (2/21)Yes98 (41/42)(21)
    CLDN496.3 (79/82)97.3 (36/37)100.0 (15/15)100.0 (26/26)No85 (17/20)(36)
  • NOTE. The percentage methylation of each gene is listed for each tissue type. The prevalence of methylated genes is indicated by a percentage followed in parenthesis by the numbers of samples methylated/analyzed.

  • Abbreviations: ND, normal duodenum tissue; PC, pancreatic carcinoma; CP, chronic pancreatitis; DJ, duodenal juice, PBC, peripheral blood cells.

  • * Statistical analysis was done after age adjustment between PC and CP groups.