Table 4

Prevalence of promoter CpG methylation in duodenal juice samples from nonneoplastic and neoplastic upper gastrointestinal diseases

Sample no.AgeSexPrevalence of methylation, % (no. of genes)Endoscopic and histologic diagnosis
Patients without upper GI neoplasm or pancreaticobiliary disease (age <50 y)
    127F25.0 (6/24)Normal*
    227F16.7 (4/24)Normal
    336F33.3 (8/24)Normal
    449F20.8 (5/24)Normal
Subtotal (1-4)24.0 (23/96)b
Patients without upper GI neoplasm or pancreaticobiliary disease (age ≥50 y)
    551F29.2 (7/24)Normal
    653M33.3 (8/24)Normal
    754M37.5 (9/24)Barrett's esophagus
    868M25.0 (6/24)Gastritis
    971M41.7 (10/24)Normal
    1081F54.2 (13/24)Normal
Subtotal (5-10)36.8 (53/144)c
Patients with upper GI neoplasms
    1159M41.7 (10/24)Esophageal cancer
    1262M37.5 (9/24)Esophageal cancer
    1371M41.7 (10/24)Gastric cancer
    1478M37.5 (9/24)GIST
    1581M41.6 (10/24)Esophageal cancer
Subtotal (11-15)40.0 (48/120)d
  • NOTE. Methylation was analyzed by MSP, b versus c, b versus d (P < 0.05, χ2 test).

  • Abbreviations: GI, gastrointestinal; GIST, gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

  • * Upper GI endoscopy was normal; no biopsies were obtained.