Table 1.

Characteristics of neoplasia and associated molecular biomarkers

Characteristics of neoplasiaPossible molecular targets
• Self-sufficiency in cell growthEpidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, MAPK, PI3K
• Insensitivity to antigrowth signalsSMADs, pRb, cyclin-dependent kinases, MYC
• Limitless replicative potentialhTERT, pRb, p53
• Evading apoptosisBCL-2, BAX, caspases, FAS, tumor necrosis factor receptor, DR5, IGF/PI3K/AKT, mTOR, p53, PTEN, ras, interleukin-3, NF-κB
• Sustained angiogenesisVEGF, basic fibroblast growth factor, αvβ3, thrombospondin-1, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α
• Tissue invasion and metastasisMatrix metalloproteinases, MAPK, E-cadherin
  • NOTE: Data from Hanahan and Weinberg (26).