Table 2.

Molecular targets and agents for chemoprevention

Molecular targetClinical targetRepresentative agents
Anti-inflammatory/antioxidant
    COX-2Multiple (colon, bladder, esophagus, lung, head and neck, breast, cervix, liver)Celecoxib, rofecoxib, NSAIDs
    EP1-4Breast, colon, head and neckONO-8711
    Inducible nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxideColon, prostate, bladder, head and neckNO-NSAIDs
    LOXLung, colon, esophagusZileuton, zafirkulast, licofelone
    NF-κBProstate, colon, head and neck, multiple myeloma, liverBortezomib, R-flurbiprofen, curcumin, tea polyphenols, statins, NSAIDs
    Antioxidant response element (Nrf2)Lung, head and neckDithiolthiones
    Glutathione S-transferaseLung, liver, head and neckDithiolthiones, PEITC
    Nkx3.1ProstateTea polyphenols
    ProstacyclinLungIloprost
Epigenetic modulation
    DNA methylationProstate, lungAzacytidine, folic acid
    Histone deacetylaseBreast, colonSAHA
    Hormonal/nuclear receptorModulation
    5α-Steroid reductaseProstateFinasteride, dutasteride
    ARProstateFlutamide, bicalutamide, 3,3′-diindoylmethane
    AromataseBreast, prostateExemestane, letrozole, anastrozole
    ER-αBreast, prostate, colonTamoxifen, toremifene, arzoxifene, raloxifene, soy isoflavones, acolfibene, indole-3-carbinol, 3,3′-diindoylmethane
    ER-βProstate, colon, breast, ovaryResveratrol, TAS-108
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γBreast, colon, head and neck, liverRosiglitazone, pioglitazone, GW7845, CDDO, LGD100268
    Retinoic acid receptor-βBreast, ovary, colon, head and neckFenretinide, 9-cis-retinoic acid
    Retinoic acid receptor/retinoid X receptorBreast, skin, head and neck9-cis-Retinoic acid
    Retinoid X receptorBreastTargretin, LGD100268
    VDRColon, prostateVitamin D3 analogues
Signal transduction modulation
    BCL-2Colon, prostateABT-737
    Cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate PDEProstate, colonExisulind
    Cyclin D1Head and neck, esophagus
    EGFRLung, bladder, breast, colonGefitinib, erlotinib, EKB569, cetuximab
    HMGCoA reductaseColon, skin (melanoma), breast, prostateStatins
    IGF/IGF receptorBreast, colon, prostate
    MAPKHead and neck, lung, breast, bladder
    Matrix metalloproteinasesColonMarimistat, prinomastat
    mTORProstateRAD-001
    Ornithine decarboxylase, polyamine synthesisColon, bladder, skinDFMO
    p53Lung, esophagus, head and neckCP31398
    PI3K/AKT, PTENHead and neck, lungDeguelin, LGD100268
    rasColon, pancreas, lungTipifarnib, perillyl alcohol
    Transforming growth factor-β/SMADsBreastCDDO
    VEGF/VEGF receptorColon, breastBevacizumab