Table 1.

Genetic alterations resulting in activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway

TargetMechanismType of cancerReferences
PTENMutation or deletionBrain, bladder, breast, prostate, and endometrial cancers(103108)
Epigenetic silencingNSCLC, endometrial and gastric cancer, prostate, ovarian, and melanocytic tumors(109112)
PI3KAmplification of PIK3CA (encodes p110α)Ovarian and cervical cancers(113115)
Mutation in PIK3CAColorectal, gastric, breast, ovarian cancers, glioblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma(115118)
Mutation in p85αColon and ovarian cancers(119)
AktAkt1 amplificationGastric adenocarcinoma(120)
Akt2 amplificationOvarian, breast, and pancreatic cancers(121123)
Akt3 amplificationHormone-independent breast and prostate cancer(124)
  • Abbreviations: NSCLC, non–small cell lung cancer; PIK3CA, phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, α polypeptide.