Table 1.

T-cell properties assessed by third-generation assays

PropertyReadoutDetection of specific T cellsSelected key references
Cytokine profileAccumulation of type 1/type 2 cytokines, including IFNγ, IL-2, TNFα/IL-5, and IL-13CFC(12)
Memory/effector phenotypeSurface expression of CD27, CD28, CD45RA, CCR7Tetramers or CFC(13)
Cytotoxic capacityPerforin, induction of CD107 surface expressionTetramers or CFC(14)
Proliferative capacityCFSE dilutionTetramers(15)
Migratory phenotypeChemokine receptors, adhesion antigensTetramers or CFC (prior staining before antigen incubation may be required)(16)
Functional TCR affinity or avidityResponse to serially diluted antigen concentrationsTetramer dilutions CFC with antigen dilutions(29)
Regulatory T cellsCD25, FOX-P3, IL-10Tetramers (yet to be studied)(24)
  • Abbreviations: CFC, cytokine flow cytometry; TCR, T-cell receptor; CFSE, 5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinmidyl ester.