Table 3.

Summary of longitudinal changes in serum factors and cause-specific survival, unadjusted and adjusted for smoking history

Cytokine1st quartile of slope*3rd quartile of slope*Unadjusted
Adjusted
RR of death (95% CI)PRR of death (95% CI)P
IL-6−0.0560.0254.7 (2.3-9.4)0.0013.8 (2.0-7.4)0.004
IL-8−0.0190.0311.9 (1.3-2.6)0.011.6 (1.2-2.2)0.05
VEGF−0.09503.3 (1.7-6.2)0.0073.0 (1.6-5.6)0.02
HGF−0.0310.01173.7 (2.3-5.8)0.0032.9 (1.9-4.4)0.02
GRO-1−0.01101.2 (1.1-1.3)0.021.2 (1.1-1.3)0.02
  • * Unit of log cytokine change per month.

  • Calculated after controlling for positive smoking history.

  • Wald's test from a Cox proportional hazards model.