Table 2.

Effects of agents on preventive/therapeutic efficacy, proliferation, and apoptosis

Agent examinedDoseInhibition of cancer multiplicityDecrease of PI*Increase of AIAI/PI ratioTherapeutic efficacy
Hormonal
    Tamoxifen2.5 mg/kg diet100§80§4.01.3+
1.0 mg/kg diet80§502.00.3+
    Vorozole1.25 mg/kg body weight/d94§925.0§3.0++++
0.32 mg/kg body weight/d85§70§4.01.0++
0.08 mg/kg body weight/d4865§3.00.6+
    Ovariectomy010094§4.04.1++++
Targeted agents
    R11577740 mg/kg body weight/d73§79§4.5§1.7+++
    Iressa10 mg/kg body weight/d95§95§4.0§3.1+++
RXR agonists
    9cRA50 mg/kg diet45552.00.34+
    UAB30200 mg/kg diet58§601.30.20+
    Targretin150 mg/kg diet80§833.30.90+++
15 mg/kg diet38351.60.15+
Phase I/II inducers
    5,6-benzoflavone1,650 mg/kg diet53321.20.13
    Indole-3-carbinol180 mg/kg body weight/d38421.50.2ND
    Diindoylmethane180 mg/kg body weight/d8121.10.10ND
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
    Sulindac800 mg/kg diet961.20.1
    Celecoxib1,500 mg/kg diet24301.20.1+
Various
    Meclizine1,000 mg/kg diet48502.50.3ND
    Sodium phenylbutyrate4,000 mg/kg diet140500.06ND
    Vitamin C165 mg/kg diet3150ND
  • NOTE: Data based on comparison of proliferation and apoptosis in 10 to 12 treated cancers versus control cancers. Rats bearing small palpable tumors were examined after 4 to 7 d of continual treatment.

    Abbreviation: ND, not determined.

  • * Data compared with the mean values of BrdUrd-labeled cells in control tumors. Control PI = 12.8%.

  • Data compared with the mean values of apoptotic cells (TUNEL assay) in control tumors. Control Al = 0.6%.

  • Ratio of percentage apoptotic cells to percentage proliferative cells.

  • § P < 0.01.

  • P < 0.05.