Table 1.

Clinical trials involving the use of universal TAAs

AntigenTumorNo. of patientsImmune respondersClinical outcomeReference
hTERT540-548Breast/prostate746/7*(28)
hTERT540-548 + MontanideMelanoma1400(29)
hTERT611-626 + GM-CSFPancreas4824/38ND(31)
hTERT540-548 + hTERT611-626 + GM-CSFNSCLC262/24 (for 540-548) 13/24 (for 611-626)1 CR(30)
hTERT mRNA loaded DCsProstate2019NE(32)
Survivin96-104 pulsed DCsMelanoma54>OS(33)
Survivin95-104 pulsed DCsProstate841 PR, 3 SD(34)
  • Abbreviations: ND, not determined; NSCLC, non–small cell lung cancer; CR, complete remission; NE, not evaluable; GM-CSF, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor; OS, overall survival; PR, partial remission; SD, stable disease.

  • * Mixed responses only.

  • Increased long-term survival without statistical assessment.