Table 2.

Human malignant diseases in which elevated levels of TGF-β have been implicated as contributing to poor outcome

Patients/tumor typeReferences
Breast cancer(3843)
Prostate cancer(4450, 76)
Renal cell cancer(52, 53)
Melanoma(58)
Pancreatic cancer(51)
Multiple myeloma(61, 62)
Non–Hodgkin's Lymphoma(6365)
Non–small cell lung cancer(77)
Small cell lung cancer(78, 79)
Colorectal cancer(80)
Ovarian cancer(81)
Cervical cancer(82)
Bladder cancer(83, 84)
Kaposi sarcoma(85)
Glioma(86)
Head and neck cancer(87)
Thyroid cancer(88
Esophageal cancer(89)
Gastric cancer(90)
Hepatocellular cancer(91, 92)