Table 1.

Targets for RCC therapy

What are the targets we want to direct therapy toward?
    VHL- or HIF-mediated pathways
        VEGF ligand or receptor signaling
        EGFR
        mTOR
        PDGF
    Non-VHL-mediated pathways
        Raf kinase
        Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase
        Akt
        Nuclear factor κB