Table 2.

Classification system: trial design and conclusions

Trial design
Does the abstract explicitly list any control population?
    Yes. If yes, then is such a control described as
    •randomly assigned, placebo-controlled arm
        •historical control
        •cohort matched
Does the abstract state or imply that the assignment to intervention is random?
    Yes or No
Does the abstract state or imply that either physicians or patients are blinded to the intervention?
    •Not blinded/not stated
Does the abstract state or imply that the dose of the drug(s) or exposure to the intervention changed as individuals were enrolled?
    Yes or No
How does the abstract summarize trial findings?
    •Claims that the intervention is active, that the data support phase III trials of the intervention, or that the data warrant further study of the intervention
    •Claims that the data do not support additional study, that the intervention is not active, or that the intervention is dangerous
    •The abstract does not make any claims about activity of the intervention