Table 1.

Cytokine expression in melanoma patients compared with healthy controls

CytokinesControlMelanomaP
IL-1α13.1 ± 3.22174.4 ± 92.00<0.01
0.0 (0.0-996.3)29.3 (0.0-16,630.5)
IL-1β40.2 ± 8.78405.7 ± 97.01<0.001
0.0 (0.0-2253.5)5.5 (0.0-11,815.2)
IL-622.8 ± 7.001,045 ± 287.6<0.001
0.0 (0.0-2,394.2)12.2 (0.0-35,459.8)
IL-89.56 ± 0.402,523 ± 1,167<0.001
8.6 (0.0-87.6)122.8 (2.9-98,563.7)
IL-12p40171.1 ± 6.52200.5 ± 10.20<0.05
137.5 (0.0-1,817.6)180.8 (63.4-485.8)
IL-1325.5 ± 2.9470.6 ± 4.82<0.001
0.0 (0.0-447.8)56.5 (0.0-455.2)
G-CSF489.2 ± 23.26730.4 ± 36.72<0.001
434.7 (0.0-4,511.7)708.8 (0.0-5,493.6)
MCP-1173.2 ± 15.041,842 ± 242.5<0.001
99.8 (0.0-4,058.1)441.8 (0.0-14,390.5)
MIP-1α88.1 ± 14.311,440 ± 323.4<0.001
19.0 (0.0-3,557.1)82.3 (0.0-24,361.9)
MIP-1β135.1 ± 29.221,664 ± 347.5<0.001
12.9 (0.0-8,679.8)198.3 (0.0-30,180.1)
IFNα16.8 ± 6.5947.2 ± 10.26<0.01
0.0 (0.0-2,205.1)0.0 (0.0-1,286.3)
TNF-α34.32 ± 11.461,041 ± 308.6<0.001
0.0 (0.0-3,847.6)28.1 (0.0-27,548.9)
EGF156.2 ± 12.42339.3 ± 11.66<0.001
117.7 (0.0-3,332.7)329.9 (9.6-908.9)
VEGF76.6 ± 6.07215.0 ± 16.30<0.05
34.9 (0.0-1,151.5)192.1 (0.0-783.1)
TNF-RII771.1 ± 29.371,007 ± 47.8<0.001
697.3 (0.0-447.8)928.9 (0.0-3,537.8)
  • NOTE: Serum samples from 179 patients before treatment with IFN-α or GMK vaccine and 378 samples from healthy control individuals were screened using a 29-plex multiplexed cytokine assay. Only serum biomarkers that showed differences between melanoma patients and control healthy group are presented as mean ± SE (pg/mL) and median (range).